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Corporal Injury on a Spouse Punishment and Sentencing (PC 273.5)

The crime of inflicting corporal injury on a spouse or cohabitant is punished severely in California. If you are convicted, you face up to four years in prison and fines of up to $6,000.

How you will be punished if you are convicted of spousal abuse under PC 273.5 depends upon a number of factors. Let’s explore how the crime of inflicting corporal injury on a spouse is punished in California.

Corporal Injury on a Spouse is a Wobbler Offense (PC 273.5)

According to California Penal Code Section 273.5, the crime of inflicting corporal injury on a spouse or cohabitant is a “wobbler” offense. This means the crime can be charged as a misdemeanor or a felony, depending upon the circumstances of your case.

When determining how you should be charged, there are many factors that prosecutors will consider. These factors include:

  • The specific facts of your case
  • The severity of the injuries suffered by the victim, and
  • Your prior criminal history (if any)

You should speak to an experienced spousal abuse lawyer at Wallin & Klarich immediately if you have been accused of inflicting corporal injury on a spouse or cohabitant. If you hire our law firm before charges are filed, your Wallin & Klarich lawyer will take a proactive approach to your case. By fighting aggressively for you before charges are filed, your attorney may be able to get the charges dropped or talk prosecutors into filing misdemeanor charges instead of felony charges.

Punishment for Misdemeanor Corporal Injury on a Spouse

If you are convicted of a misdemeanor for inflicting corporal injury on a spouse, you face up to 364 days in county jail and fines of up to $6,000.

A conviction carries additional forms of punishment including:

  • A domestic violence restraining order issued against you – You could be prohibited from making any contact with the victim through a protective order that can last for up to 10 years. This order may be issued whether the sentence is suspended or you are placed on probation or sentenced to a jail term.
  • Community service and counseling – Under California law, you must complete a 52-week batterer’s program if you are convicted of inflicting corporal injury on a spouse.
  • Restitution – You may be required to provide compensation for the victim’s counseling. You could also be ordered to pay restitution to the victim for other reasons.

Penalties for Felony Corporal Injury on a Spouse

Corporal injury on a spouse penalties
Corporal injury on a spouse penalties are harsh.

Felony corporal injury on a spouse or cohabitant is punished more harshly. If you are convicted of felony spousal abuse under PC 273.5, you face two, three or four years in state prison and fines of up to $6,000.

You could be sentenced to up to five years in prison for inflicting corporal injury on a spouse if you have a prior conviction for battery, sexual battery or another form of aggravated assault on your record.

Additionally, your sentence could be extended if the victim suffered serious injury. Under PC 12202.7, you could face an additional three, four or five years in prison if you caused “great bodily harm” to the victim.

Court Options for Felony Corporal Injury on a Spouse Sentencing

If you are convicted of a felony for inflicting corporal injury on a spouse, the court has a few options when it comes to sentencing you.

The court can do any of the following:

  • Sentence you to two, three or four years in prison
  • Sentence you to a period of time in county jail for up to 364 days and order you to be placed on probation upon release, OR
  • Impose no jail sentence and place you on probation immediately

How you will be sentenced depends upon the specific circumstances of your case and how the California Rules of Court under CRC 4.414, 4.421 and 4.423 apply to your case. These rules explain what criteria the court must consider in deciding whether to grant you probation or sentence you to time in custody.

If you hire our experienced domestic violence lawyers to represent you, we will fight aggressively for you so that you receive the best possible outcome in your case.

How a Corporal Injury on a Spouse Conviction Could Affect Your Immigration Status

Violations of PC 273.5 are considered “crimes of moral turpitude” if the victim is your spouse. This means that if you are convicted of inflicting corporal injury on a spouse, you could:

  • Lose your right to re-enter the country after leaving
  • Lose the ability to ever become a U.S. citizen, and
  • Lose your right to apply for a green card or an “adjustment of status”

Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Probation for Violations of PC 273.5

Sentencing and probation are complicated areas of the law. That is why you should speak to an experienced spousal abuse lawyer who can help you understand the consequences you are facing and help you obtain a positive result in your case.

Our skilled attorneys at Wallin & Klarich have been successfully defending clients facing charges of corporal injury on a spouse for more than 35 years. Here are some of the questions our clients ask most frequently with regards to being sentenced to probation for inflicting corporal injury on a spouse:

What is probation and why would I want probation instead of serving time in jail?

PC 273.5
Probation may be an option for PC 273.5.

Being granted probation is a way for you to be sentenced without having to spend time in custody. This could benefit you because you live in your own home and you may be able to continue working or going to school.

When you are placed on probation, you must comply with a set of rules called your “probation conditions,” which may include donating up to $5,000 to a battered women’s shelter, paying restitution to the victim and completing community service. Failing to comply with any of the conditions of your probation could result in you facing the maximum sentence for the original crime you were convicted of.

If I am placed on probation for violating PC 273.5, how long will I be on probation?

How long your probation lasts will depend upon how you are sentenced. Probation can be summary probation (also referred to as “misdemeanor probation”) or formal probation (also known as “felony probation”).

Misdemeanor probation can be imposed for up to three years. Felony probation can be imposed for as long as five years and often includes serving up to one year in county jail.

What if I am placed on probation and I violate any of the terms of my probation?

Some of the most common ways that you could violate probation would be to:

  • Fail to complete your 52-week batterer’s program as ordered by the court
  • Fail to pay any fines imposed by the court
  • Fail to report to your probation officer if the court assigns you a probation officer
  • Have contact with your spouse or significant other if the court orders you to remain away from that person during the period of your probation, or
  • Commit any new misdemeanor or felony offense

If you violate any of the terms of your probation, you will face a probation violation hearing. At this hearing, the judge can sentence you to serve up to the maximum sentence for the offense you were originally convicted of. You will be given credit for any jail time you have already served prior to being placed on probation. You will be required to serve 50 percent of the actual sentence in custody.

Speak to an Experienced Spousal Abuse Lawyer at Wallin & Klarich Today

Spousal abuse attorneys
Our spousal abuse attorneys can help you!

If you are facing a corporal injury on a spouse charge, you should not hesitate to speak to a skilled and knowledgeable spousal abuse attorney. At Wallin & Klarich, our domestic violence lawyers understand the complex laws and sentencing structure for the crime of inflicting corporal injury on a spouse. With more than 35 years of experience successfully handling these types of cases, we may be able to help you obtain a favorable outcome in your case.

With offices in Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, Victorville, West Covina, Torrance, Los Angeles and San Diego, you can find an experienced Wallin & Klarich attorney available near you no matter where you work or live.

Contact our law firm at (877) 4-NO-JAIL or (877) 466-5245 for a free phone consultation regarding your case. We will be there when you call.


List of all Punishments under California Law Pertaining to Penal Code Section 273.5.

Penal Code 273.5. Willful Infliction of Corporal Injury; Violation; Punishment.

(a) Any person who willfully inflicts upon a person who is his or her spouse, former spouse, cohabitant, former cohabitant, or the mother or father of his or her child, corporal injury resulting in a traumatic condition is guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years, or in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of up to six thousand dollars ($6,000) or by both that fine and imprisonment.

(b) Holding oneself out to be the husband or wife of the person with whom one is cohabiting is not necessary to constitute cohabitation as the term is used in this section.

(c) As used in this section, “traumatic condition” means a condition of the body, such as a wound, or external or internal injury, including, but not limited to, injury as a result of strangulation or suffocation, whether of a minor or serious nature, caused by a physical force. For purposes of this section, “strangulation” and “suffocation” include impeding the normal breathing or circulation of the blood of a person by applying pressure on the throat or neck.

(d) For the purpose of this section, a person shall be considered the father or mother of another person’s child if the alleged male parent is presumed the natural father under Sections 7611 and 7612 of the Family Code.

(e)(1) Any person convicted of violating this section for acts occurring within seven years of a previous conviction under subdivision (a), or subdivision (d) of Section 243, or Section 243.4, 244, 244.5, or 245, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by imprisonment in the state prison for two, four, or five years, or by both imprisonment and a fine of up to ten thousand dollars ($10,000).

(2) Any person convicted of a violation of this section for acts occurring within seven years of a previous conviction under subdivision (e) of Section 243 shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years, or in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of up to ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or by both that imprisonment and fine.

(f) If probation is granted to any person convicted under subdivision (a), the court shall impose probation consistent with the provisions of Section 1203.097.

(g) If probation is granted, or the execution or imposition of a sentence is suspended, for any defendant convicted under subdivision (a) who has been convicted of any prior offense specified in subdivision (e), the court shall impose one of the following conditions of probation:

(1) If the defendant has suffered one prior conviction within the previous seven years for a violation of any offense specified in subdivision (e), it shall be a condition thereof, in addition to the provisions contained in Section 1203.097, that he or she be imprisoned in a county jail for not less than 15 days.

(2) If the defendant has suffered two or more prior convictions within the previous seven years for a violation of any offense specified in subdivision(e), it shall be a condition of probation, in addition to the provisions contained in Section 1203.097, that he or she be imprisoned in a county jail for not less than 60 days.

(3) The court, upon a showing of good cause, may find that the mandatory imprisonment required by this subdivision shall not be imposed and shall state on the record its reasons for finding good cause.

(h) If probation is granted upon conviction of a violation of subdivision (a), the conditions of probation may include, consistent with the terms of probation imposed pursuant to Section 1203.097, in lieu of a fine, one or both of the following requirements:

(1) That the defendant make payments to a battered women’s shelter, up to a maximum of five thousand dollars ($5,000), pursuant to Section 1203.097.

(2) That the defendant reimburse the victim for reasonable costs of counseling and other reasonable expenses that the court finds are the direct result of the defendant’s offense.
For any order to pay a fine, make payments to a battered women’s shelter, or pay restitution as a condition of probation under this subdivision, the court shall make a determination of the defendant’s ability to pay. In no event shall any order to make payments to a battered women’s shelter be made if it would impair the ability of the defendant to pay direct restitution to the victim or court-ordered child support. Where the injury to a married person is caused in whole or in part by the criminal acts of his or her spouse in violation of this section, the community property may not be used to discharge the liability of the offending spouse for restitution to the injured spouse, required by Section 1203.04, as operative on or before August 2, 1995, or Section 1202.4, or to a shelter for costs with regard to the injured spouse and dependents, required by this section, until all separate property of the offending spouse is exhausted.

(i) Upon conviction under subdivision (a), the sentencing court shall also consider issuing an order restraining the defendant from any contact with the victim, which may be valid for up to 10 years, as determined by the court. It is the intent of the Legislature that the length of any restraining order be based upon the seriousness of the facts before the court, the probability of future violations, and the safety of the victim and his or her immediate family. This protective order may be issued by the court whether the defendant is sentenced to state prison, county jail, or if imposition of sentence is suspended and the defendant is placed on probation.

(j) If a peace officer makes an arrest for a violation of this section, the peace officer is not required to inform the victim of his or her right to make a citizen’s arrest pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 836.

 


 

California Rules of Court Regarding Probation and Denial of Probation

Rule 4.414. Criteria affecting probation

Criteria affecting the decision to grant or deny probation include facts relating to the crime and facts relating to the defendant.

(a) Facts relating to the crime

Facts relating to the crime include:

(1) The nature, seriousness, and circumstances of the crime as compared to other instances of the same crime;

(2) Whether the defendant was armed with or used a weapon;

(3) The vulnerability of the victim;

(4) Whether the defendant inflicted physical or emotional injury;

(5) The degree of monetary loss to the victim;

(6) Whether the defendant was an active or a passive participant;

(7) Whether the crime was committed because of an unusual circumstance, such as great provocation, which is unlikely to recur;

(8) Whether the manner in which the crime was carried out demonstrated criminal sophistication or professionalism on the part of the defendant; and

(9) Whether the defendant took advantage of a position of trust or confidence to commit the crime.

(Subd (a) amended effective January 1, 2007; previously amended effective January 1, 1991.)

(b) Facts relating to the defendant

Facts relating to the defendant include:

(1) Prior record of criminal conduct, whether as an adult or a juvenile, including the recency and frequency of prior crimes; and whether the prior record indicates a pattern of regular or increasingly serious criminal conduct;

(2) Prior performance on probation or parole and present probation or parole status;

(3) Willingness to comply with the terms of probation;

(4) Ability to comply with reasonable terms of probation as indicated by the defendant’s age, education, health, mental faculties, history of alcohol or other substance abuse, family background and ties, employment and military service history, and other relevant factors;

(5) The likely effect of imprisonment on the defendant and his or her dependents;

(6) The adverse collateral consequences on the defendant’s life resulting from the felony conviction;

(7) Whether the defendant is remorseful; and

(8) The likelihood that if not imprisoned the defendant will be a danger to others.

(Subd (b) amended effective January 1, 2007; previously amended effective January 1, 1991, and July 1, 2003.)

Rule 4.414 amended effective January 1, 2007; adopted as rule 414 effective July 1, 1977; previously amended effective January 1, 1991; previously renumbered effective January 1, 2001; previously amended effective July 1, 2003.

Advisory Committee Comment

The sentencing judge’s discretion to grant probation is unaffected by the Uniform Determinate Sentencing Act (§ 1170(a)(3)).

The decision whether to grant probation is normally based on an overall evaluation of the likelihood that the defendant will live successfully in the general community. Each criterion points to evidence that the likelihood of success is great or small. A single criterion will rarely be determinative; in most cases, the sentencing judge will have to balance favorable and unfavorable facts.

Under criteria (b)(3) and (b)(4), it is appropriate to consider the defendant’s expressions of willingness to comply and his or her apparent sincerity, and whether the defendant’s home and work environment and primary associates will be supportive of the defendant’s efforts to comply with the terms of probation, among other factors.

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Rule 4.421. Circumstances in aggravation

Circumstances in aggravation include factors relating to the crime and factors relating to the defendant.

(a) Factors relating to the crime

Factors relating to the crime, whether or not charged or chargeable as enhancements include that:

(1) The crime involved great violence, great bodily harm, threat of great bodily harm, or other acts disclosing a high degree of cruelty, viciousness, or callousness;

(2) The defendant was armed with or used a weapon at the time of the commission of the crime;

(3) The victim was particularly vulnerable;

(4) The defendant induced others to participate in the commission of the crime or occupied a position of leadership or dominance of other participants in its commission;

(5) The defendant induced a minor to commit or assist in the commission of the crime;

(6) The defendant threatened witnesses, unlawfully prevented or dissuaded witnesses from testifying, suborned perjury, or in any other way illegally interfered with the judicial process;

(7) The defendant was convicted of other crimes for which consecutive sentences could have been imposed but for which concurrent sentences are being imposed;

(8) The manner in which the crime was carried out indicates planning, sophistication, or professionalism;

(9) The crime involved an attempted or actual taking or damage of great monetary value;

(10) The crime involved a large quantity of contraband; and

(11) The defendant took advantage of a position of trust or confidence to commit the offense.

(12) The crime constitutes a hate crime under section 422.55 and:

(A) No hate crime enhancements under section 422.75 are imposed; and

(B) The crime is not subject to sentencing under section 1170.8.

(Subd (a) amended effective May 23, 2007; previously amended effective January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2007.)

(b) Factors relating to the defendant

Factors relating to the defendant include that:

(1) The defendant has engaged in violent conduct that indicates a serious danger to society;

(2) The defendant’s prior convictions as an adult or sustained petitions in juvenile delinquency proceedings are numerous or of increasing seriousness;

(3) The defendant has served a prior prison term;

(4) The defendant was on probation or parole when the crime was committed; and

(5) The defendant’s prior performance on probation or parole was unsatisfactory.

(Subd (b) amended effective May 23, 2007; previously amended effective January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2007.)

(c) Other factors

Any other factors statutorily declared to be circumstances in aggravation.

(Subd (c) amended effective May 23, 2007; adopted effective January 1, 1991; previously amended effective January 1, 2007.)

Rule 4.421 amended effective May 23, 2007; adopted as rule 421 effective July 1, 1977; previously renumbered effective January 1, 2001; previously amended effective January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2007.

Advisory Committee Comment

Circumstances in aggravation may justify imposition of the upper of three possible prison terms. (Section 1170(b).)

The list of circumstances in aggravation includes some facts that, if charged and found, may be used to enhance the sentence. The rule does not deal with the dual use of the facts; the statutory prohibition against dual use is included, in part, in rule 4.420.

Conversely, such facts as infliction of bodily harm, being armed with or using a weapon, and a taking or loss of great value may be circumstances in aggravation even if not meeting the statutory definitions for enhancements.

Facts concerning the defendant’s prior record and personal history may be considered. By providing that the defendant’s prior record and simultaneous convictions of other offenses may not be used both for enhancement and in aggravation, section 1170(b) indicates that these and other facts extrinsic to the commission of the crime may be considered in aggravation in appropriate cases. This resolves whatever ambiguity may arise from the phrase “circumstances in aggravation . . . of the crime.” The phrase “circumstances in aggravation or mitigation of the crime” necessarily alludes to extrinsic facts.

Refusal to consider the personal characteristics of the defendant in imposing sentence would also raise serious constitutional questions. The California Supreme Court has held that sentencing decisions must take into account “the nature of the offense and/or the offender, with particular regard to the degree of danger both present to society.” In re Rodriguez (1975) 14 Cal.3d 639, 654, quoting In re Lynch (1972) 8 Cal.3d 410, 425. In In re Rodriguez the court released petitioner from further incarceration because “[I]t appears that neither the circumstances of his offense nor his personal characteristics establish a danger to society sufficient to justify such a prolonged period of imprisonment.” (Id. at 655.) (Footnote omitted, emphasis added.) “For the determination of sentences, justice generally requires . . . that there be taken into account the circumstances of the offense together with the character and propensities of the offender.” (Pennsylvania v. Ashe (1937) 302 U.S. 51, 55, quoted with approval in Gregg v. Georgia (1976) 428 U.S. 153, 189.)

The scope of “circumstances in aggravation or mitigation” under section 1170(b) is, therefore, coextensive with the scope of inquiry under the similar phrase in section 1203.

The 1990 amendments to this rule and the comment included the deletion of most section numbers. These changes recognize changing statutory section numbers and the fact that there are numerous additional code sections related to the rule, including numerous statutory enhancements enacted since the rule was originally adopted.

Former subdivision (a)(4), concerning multiple victims, was deleted to avoid confusion; cases in which that possible circumstance in aggravation was relied on were frequently reversed on appeal because there was only a single victim in a particular count.

Old age or youth of the victim may be circumstances in aggravation; see section 1170.85(b). Other statutory circumstances in aggravation are listed, for example, in sections 1170.7, 1170.71, 1170.75, 1170.8, and 1170.85.

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Rule 4.423. Circumstances in mitigation

Circumstances in mitigation include factors relating to the crime and factors relating to the defendant.

(a) Factors relating to the crime

Factors relating to the crime include that:

(1) The defendant was a passive participant or played a minor role in the crime;

(2) The victim was an initiator of, willing participant in, or aggressor or provoker of the incident;

(3) The crime was committed because of an unusual circumstance, such as great provocation, that is unlikely to recur;

(4) The defendant participated in the crime under circumstances of coercion or duress, or the criminal conduct was partially excusable for some other reason not amounting to a defense;

(5) The defendant, with no apparent predisposition to do so, was induced by others to participate in the crime;

(6) The defendant exercised caution to avoid harm to persons or damage to property, or the amounts of money or property taken were deliberately small, or no harm was done or threatened against the victim;

(7) The defendant believed that he or she had a claim or right to the property taken, or for other reasons mistakenly believed that the conduct was legal;

(8) The defendant was motivated by a desire to provide necessities for his or her family or self; and

(9) The defendant suffered from repeated or continuous physical, sexual, or psychological abuse inflicted by the victim of the crime, and the victim of the crime, who inflicted the abuse, was the defendant’s spouse, intimate cohabitant, or parent of the defendant’s child; and the abuse does not amount to a defense.

(Subd (a) amended effective May 23, 2007; previously amended effective January 1, 1991, July 1, 1993, and January 1, 2007.)

(b) Factors relating to the defendant

Factors relating to the defendant include that:

(1) The defendant has no prior record, or has an insignificant record of criminal conduct, considering the recency and frequency of prior crimes;

(2) The defendant was suffering from a mental or physical condition that significantly reduced culpability for the crime;

(3) The defendant voluntarily acknowledged wrongdoing before arrest or at an early stage of the criminal process;

(4) The defendant is ineligible for probation and but for that ineligibility would have been granted probation;

(5) The defendant made restitution to the victim; and

(6) The defendant’s prior performance on probation or parole was satisfactory.

(Subd (b) amended effective May 23, 2007; previously amended effective January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2007.)

Rule 4.423 amended effective May 23, 2007; adopted as rule 423 effective July 1, 1977; previously renumbered effective January 1, 2001; previously amended effective January 1, 1991, July 1, 1993, and January 1, 2007.

Advisory Committee Comment

See comment to rule 4.421.

This rule applies both to mitigation for purposes of motions under section 1170(b) and to circumstances in mitigation justifying the court in striking the additional punishment provided for an enhancement.

Some listed circumstances can never apply to certain enhancements; for example, “the amounts taken were deliberately small” can never apply to an excessive taking under section 12022.6, and “no harm was done” can never apply to infliction of great bodily injury under section 12022.7. In any case, only the facts present may be considered for their possible effect in mitigation.

See also rule 4.409; only relevant criteria need be considered.

Since only the fact of restitution is considered relevant to mitigation, no reference to the defendant’s financial ability is needed. The omission of a comparable factor from rule 4.421 as a circumstance in aggravation is deliberate.

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*List of punishments and California Rules of Court were retrieved on March 6, 2013 from FindLaw (http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/cacode/PEN/3/1/9/2/s273.5).

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